Paint is something most of us take for granted today. We can walk into any hardware store and select from a rainbow of colors and finishes to spruce up our homes. But paint hasn’t always been so innocuous. Many pigments used throughout history were made with toxic ingredients like lead, arsenic, and mercury. These vivid hues came at a deadly cost for many artists and craftspeople. Join us as we explore some of the most colorful yet cautionary tales from the history of paint production and use.

The Perilous Process of Making Lead White

For centuries, the brightest white pigment available to artists was lead white. This dense, opaque color was favored by masters like Rembrandt and Titian for its hiding power and mixability. But while lead white yielded glorious highlights, the process of making it was fraught with danger.

Lead white was created by corroding plates of lead with vinegar fumes to produce white flakes of lead carbonate. But these white powders were also laced with lead acetate, making them highly toxic. What’s more, the vapors released during corrosion were extremely hazardous to breathe. As a result, many of the laborers tasked with producing lead white suffered from an array of maladies including anemia, delirium, immune suppression, infertility, and even death.

Yet the deadly risks of making lead white were considered an acceptable tradeoff for the pigment’s unparalleled quality. It wasn’t until less toxic alternatives like titanium and zinc whites were introduced in the 19th and 20th centuries that the use of lead white was finally phased out.

Hues of Mercury: The Madness of the Mad Hatter

Brilliant reds and vibrant oranges were hard to come by before the widespread use of synthetic dyes in the late 19th century. One of the only ways to achieve these scintillating shades was through cinnabar, a mercury-based pigment. When ground into a fine powder, cinnabar produced the prized hue known as vermilion.

But there was a dark side to this coveted color. Mercury is a potent neurotoxin, and prolonged exposure could cause slurred speech, muscle weakness, hallucinations, and insane behaviors – a condition grimly known as “mad hatter’s disease.” This name came from the plight of hatmakers, who used mercury as part of the process for turning fur into felt. The mercury fumes slowly poisoned the workers, driving them mad.

Many painters also worked closely with cinnabar and vermilion, meticulously grinding the toxic crystals by hand to produce the coveted color. Over time, they too exhibited the tremors, delirium, and deranged mental states characteristic of mercury poisoning. While the brilliance of vermilion shone brightly on the canvas, it dimmed many lives over the centuries.

Emerald Green: A Shade of Deadly Arsenic

Another notorious pigment from history is emerald green. This cool, refreshing color was hugely popular for decorating walls, highlighting ornamental details, and livening up fabrics and wallpapers. But its chemistry was far from calming.

Most emerald green pigments were derived from copper acetoarsenite, a compound that contains arsenic – a fierce poison known as “the king of poisons and the poison of kings.” The arsenic dust released while grinding or handling these pigments could wreak havoc on the lungs, kidneys, liver, and other organs when inhaled. In addition, fabrics dyed green with arsenic posed an even more insidious threat. The pigment didn’t chemically bind to cloth fibers, meaning it readily flaked off of fabrics in homes, slowly poisoning people without their awareness.

In 1859, Napoleon III enacted a ban on arsenic greens in France following reports of illness and death from the color. Other countries gradually followed suit. But the toxic green shades remained popular into the early 20th century. The lives lost from this vivid hue are a sobering reminder of the hidden costs behind our brilliant inventions.

Toxic Tints to Timeless Treasures: Masterpieces Tinged with Poison

Many celebrated works of art from history literally radiate with dangerous colors. Vermeer’s famous Girl with a Pearl Earring is brought to life with lead white highlights. The Mona Lisa’s luminous skin glows thanks to a glaze of lead white over blues and yellows containing arsenic. Even Picasso’s groundbreaking Cubist works contain cadmium yellows and greens – colors derived from the metal cadmium, a potent carcinogen.

And perhaps most iconic of all are Van Gogh’s radiant sunflower paintings, created with vibrant chrome yellow pigments. The compounds used to produce these sunny tones contain traces of lead chromate – a substance that likely contributed to Van Gogh’s declining mental health and untimely death. Yet despite the risks, these poisons on the palette gave rise to some of the most cherished creations of human civilization.

While we remark on the artists’ brilliance, we often overlook the toxic tolls taken to achieve such masterpieces. The next time you gaze at a famous painting, consider not just the genius behind the art, but the poisonous pigments that made it possible. These great works remind us that art can emerge even from darkness – with a somber human cost.

Cobalt Blues: Vivid Color, Violent Extraction

Cobalt has been prized since ancient times for producing brilliant blues ranging from pale sky tones to deep, saturated midnight hues. But our appetite for cobalt blue and greens carries serious humanitarian and environmental consequences that are only recently coming to light.

More than half of the world’s cobalt supply comes from the conflict-ridden Democratic Republic of Congo. Much of it is extracted through small-scale, “artisanal” mines lacking in safety measures and worker protections. Dangerous conditions, frequent accidents, child labor, and rampant disease surround Congolese cobalt mining.

What’s more, to isolate the cobalt metal from mined ore, toxic acids are required – acids that are often discarded into local waterways and soil once the cobalt has been extracted. This contaminates food and water supplies, placing a heavy burden on nearby communities.

The vibrant cobalt pigments found in pricey oil paints have their roots in places where human lives are treated as disposable resources. As we work to secure safer, more ethical paint colors for the future, understanding this sobering backstory is a critical first step.

Modern Regulations Make Paint Safer

Today our paint choices are far less hazardous thanks to consumer protection laws enacted over the past century. Restrictions on lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxins have steadily reduced the risks of paint production. But it’s only through past tragedies that we learned just how deadly pigments could be.

Modern watercolors, acrylics, oil paints, and other media still contain some metals and compounds that require careful handling. But overall, the dangers have diminished drastically from centuries past. Artists can freely apply cadmium red and chromium oxide green secure that these colors no longer pose substantial health threats when used responsibly.

As we reflect on the materials that make art possible, it’s striking how our quest for beauty has so often entailed inadvertent yet terrible costs along the way. Appreciating this history deepens our respect for the painters whose vitality was cut short from contact with their cherished colors. Their sacrifices fuel our continued search for safer ways to capture life’s vibrant hues.

Frequently Asked Questions

What made lead white so toxic?

The white pigment lead carbonate contains lead acetate, which is highly poisonous. Lead white was also produced by a corrosion process that released dangerous lead fumes into the air, affecting workers who made the pigment.

How did mercury poisoning affect artists?

Grinding vermilion, a mercury-based pigment, by hand released mercury vapor that artists inhaled. This led to mercury accumulating in the body, causing symptoms like tremors, speech problems, and neurological damage known as “mad hatter’s disease.”

Why was emerald green so popular if it contained arsenic?

Vivid emerald green pigments were one of the only ways to achieve bright green hues before synthetic pigments were invented. While the arsenic content was dangerous, people valued the stunning color enough to overlook the risks.

Do any famous paintings contain toxic pigments?

Yes, many masterpieces are painted with pigments we now know to be hazardous, like lead white, arsenic greens, and cadmium yellows. Vermeer, Van Gogh, Picasso, and others all used toxic colors extensively in their painting.

How is cobalt mining dangerous for people and the environment?

More than half the world’s cobalt comes from the Congo, where artisanal mines lack safety measures and expose workers to dangerous conditions. Toxic acids used while extracting cobalt also pollute surrounding soil and rivers.

How are paints safer today compared to historical times?

Thanks to modern regulations on lead, arsenic, mercury and other toxins, paints today contain far lower levels of hazardous substances. While no paint is completely risk-free, appropriate handling makes modern paints far less dangerous.


The quest for brilliant new pigments has a long, troubled history rife with unintended consequences. Many vivid paint colors used widely in past centuries were achieved through toxic metals like lead, mercury, cobalt, and arsenic, leading to many cases of illness, madness, and death among those who handled them. Even beloved works of art by great masters were painted with these dangerous substances. It’s only through retrospective lens that we now question if the pursuit of visual splendor was worth the grave risks these pigments posed. Today’s painting materials are held to much higher standards of safety. By learning from the painful lessons of the past, our current paints empower expression with far fewer perils – letting color inspire rather than kill. With vigilance and wisdom, may this progress continue, so pigments can illuminate the human spirit as safely as possible.