The ocean is full of wonders, housing some of the most bizarre and fascinating creatures on Earth. Recently, there has been an influx of strange gelatinous organisms washing up on beaches around the world. Nicknamed “blobs” for their unusual appearance, these creatures have captured public attention and sparked scientific intrigue. In this article, we will explore the biology of these blob-like animals, examine theories about their sudden proliferation, and consider their implications for ocean ecosystems. Strap on your wetsuit – we’re going for a deep dive into the gelatinous world of the blobs!

What Are Blobs?

Blobs refer to a variety of gelatinous zooplankton species that have been appearing in large numbers in recent years. Some of the most common types of blobs include:


Jellyfish are free-swimming marine invertebrates belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. With their soft, translucent, blob-like bodies and trailing tentacles, jellyfish epitomize these gelatinous visitors. Major jellyfish groups include Scyphozoa (true jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (hydroids). Jellyfish have complex life cycles, going through both polyp and medusa phases. Their stinging cells, called nematocysts, allow them to capture prey.


Salps are barrel-shaped, transparent zooplankton in the family Salpidae. They move by contracting their bodies and filter-feeding on phytoplankton. Salps can reproduce rapidly by budding off clones, allowing population booms. They are an important part of ocean food webs, transferring energy to higher trophic levels when eaten.


Also known as comb jellies, ctenophores have gelatinous bodies and use rows of cilia for locomotion. They are voracious predators, using sticky tentacles to capture prey. Ctenophores exhibit bioluminescence and come in a variety of shapes. They are the largest animals to swim using cilia.

So in summary, “blobs” include diverse gelatinous species, but they share characteristics like substantial water content, soft and transparent bodies, and often, fragile forms. Their dramatic appearance when they wash up belies an alien beauty.

Why Are Blob Populations Increasing?

The apparent proliferation of blobs has been noted in news reports around the world. While jellyfish and comb jellies are not new species, scientists have observed increasing blooms in recent decades. What is behind their population surges? Several key factors may be at play:


Overfishing target species like tuna and cod can remove predators that keep jellyfish, ctenophores, and salps in check. When fewer predators are present, populations of their prey can explode. Additionally, some fishing practices damage seafloor habitats and reef ecosystems, further reducing biodiversity.

Nutrient Pollution

Fertilizer and sewage runoff provide excess nutrients that stimulate phytoplankton growth. These microscopic algae are food for many gelatinous zooplankton. More phytoplankton can support larger zooplankton populations.

Climate Change

Rising ocean temperatures, acidification, and deoxygenation associated with climate change may favor warm-water species like many jellyfish. Warmer seas may also alter predator-prey relationships and stimulate earlier seasonal jellyfish blooms.

Transport Via Ships

Ships’ ballast water and hull fouling provide vectors for invasions of non-native jellyfish and ctenophores. Once introduced, some of these species proliferate readily in their new environs.

Natural Population Cycles

Some zooplankton like jellyfish follow boom-and-bust population cycles. Natural fluctuations in predation, temperature, currents, and food availability can cause periodic expansions. Recent blooms may represent the crest of a cycle.

In summary, human activities like overfishing, pollution, and shipping, combined with natural fluctuations and climate shifts, create favorable conditions for blob populations to increase dramatically. The jury is still out on the exact blend of factors causing current proliferation.

Are blob invasions new?

  • No, jellyfish and other gelatinous zooplankton have natural boom-and-bust cycles. However, human impacts may be exacerbating blooms.

Impacts on Ocean Ecosystems

What are the implications of more numerous blobs for marine ecosystems? Here are some potential effects:

Altered Food Webs

With more jellyfish and salps filter-feeding on phytoplankton, they divert energy away from other zooplankton and fish. This can restructure ocean food webs. However, when eaten by turtles and other predators, blobs do transfer nutrients upward.

Competition with Fish

Growing blob populations may compete with fish for food sources like zooplankton and phytoplankton. This could reduce survival of fish larvae and juveniles, affecting fisheries.

Danger for Swimmers

While most jellyfish stings are not life-threatening, they can cause reactions ranging from mild discomfort to extreme pain. More jellyfish increase risks for unwary swimmers and beachgoers.

Fouling of Fishing Gear

Fishermen lament that blooms of gelatinous creatures can clog nets and damage gear. Removing blobs takes time and can ruin captured fish. This creates headaches for fishing industries.

Alteration of Habitats

Some jelly-falls depositing on seafloors provide food for bottom-dwelling organisms. But extremely dense jellyfish carpets can also smother delicate habitats like seagrass beds and coral reefs through excessive mucus production.

Climate Feedback Effects

Jellyfish may absorb and release substantial amounts of carbon from the oceans as part of the “biological pump.” Changes in jellyfish abundance could potentially impact climate through alteration of carbon cycling.

In essence, proliferation of blobs has complex repercussions throughout the ocean ecosystem and human economy. More research is needed to quantify the effects, but global increases are likely already influencing multiple marine species.

Can blobs help fight climate change?

  • Possibly. Some evidence suggests jellyfish contribute to the ocean’s biological carbon pump. But much more study is needed on their exact climate role.

Spotlight on Key Blob Species

Now let’s take a closer look at some of the “blob” organisms that have made dramatic appearances recently:

Nomura’s Jellyfish

Native to the waters around Japan and China, these enormous scyphozoan jellyfish can reach over 6 feet (2 meters) in diameter and weigh up to 440 pounds (200 kg)! Their blooms have shut down fisheries and power plants. Some suggest they are proliferating due to overfishing, climate change, and eutrophication.

Pink Meanies

These tennis ball-sized jellyfish stunned Texan beachgoers in 2022 when they washed up by the thousands. Their original range is in the Gulf of Mexico, but warming waters may have prompted their expansion. As voracious predators, they prey upon commercially important fish and shrimp larvae.

Purple Sails

These beautiful, translucent comb jellies were first documented in the Gulf of Mexico in 2000 but have since spread up the eastern U.S. coast as far as Maine. They compete with local ctenophores and fish larvae for plankton prey. Purple sails exhibit a distinctive red-orange bioluminescence.

By-the-Wind Sailor

This siphonophore appears like a jellyfish but is actually a colony of specialized clones. Ranging in size from a fingernail to a dinner plate, their pneumatic, wind-driven motion carries them into shore when winds prevail offshore. Their stings are highly irritating but rarely dangerous.

Salpa maxima

These large, barrel-shaped salps live in warm southern waters but have recently expanded northwards. Their ability to reproduce rapidly via cloning lets populations explode when conditions are right. When abundant, their efficient filter-feeding impacts phytoplankton levels.

These examples showcase just a sample of the many blob denizens that have exhibited population surges, range expansions, and unusual stranding events in recent years. Each species has unique qualities, as well as potential ecosystem impacts. Continued research will reveal more about what prompts their unusual blooms.

Are Blob Invasions Good or Bad?

  • The effects of more numerous blobs are complex. While they can disrupt ecosystems and economies in some ways, they also have intrinsic value and importance in ocean food webs. Overall impacts depend on the species and location. More study is needed.

How to Study Blobs

Blobs present some unique challenges for scientific study:

  • Fragile bodies – Gelatinous zooplankton are very delicate. Specialized collection methods are needed to catch them intact.
  • Patchy distribution – Planktonic blobs cluster in patches and may gather by coastlines. Finding population hotspots is tricky.
  • Difficult identification – Many species look similar. Genetic analysis is often needed for species-level identification.
  • Rapid decomposition – Blob bodies break down quickly after death. Live study is preferred over preserved samples.
  • Deep ocean populations – Much blob diversity lives far offshore. Studying them requires costly seaborne expeditions.

However, researchers have some key tools and techniques for probing blob mysteries:

  • Net tows – Plankton nets of various mesh sizes allow capture of jellyfish, salps, and ctenophores.
  • ROVs/AUVs – Underwater robotic vehicles can film and collect gelatinous animals in their natural habitat.
  • Acoustic surveys – Sonar tracking provides insights into blob movements, schooling, and aggregations.
  • Environmental DNA – Genetic analysis of seawater samples can detect and identify planktonic species.
  • Satellite imagery – From space, scientists can spot blooms and model ocean conditions influencing blobs.

Dedicated scientists armed with these methods continue probing the secrets of marine blobs, one gooey specimen at a time. Their findings will help predict and manage future blob occurrences in a changing ocean.

How can citizen scientists help study blobs?

  • By reporting sightings, submitting photos, participating in monitoring projects, and following good jelly handling practices (e.g. never removing them from the water). Public involvement provides valuable data.

Coping With Blob Encounters

What should you do if you spot a blob invasion at the beach? Here are some tips:

  • Watch your step – Walk carefully and avoid touching stranded specimens. Their stings can persist even after death.
  • Keep your distance – Give any gelatinous creatures in the water a wide berth. Don’t prod or pick them up.
  • Cover up – Wear swimsuit cover ups and foot protection if entering blob-infested waters.
  • Follow any warnings – Heed beach advisories and closures due to excessive jellyfish numbers.
  • Rinse if stung – Wash any affected skin with saltwater (not freshwater). Remove any clinging tentacles.
  • Treat reactions – For severe reactions, apply vinegar and seek medical help immediately.
  • Report sightings – Notify lifeguards and contribute to citizen science databases by noting occurrences.
  • Respect no-take rules – Avoid removing live blobs from the ocean, as they are important marine life.

With caution and common sense, we can safely coexist with these intriguing denizens of the deep, whether on the beach or in the surf. While blob encounters may be on the rise, education and prudent practices can help us get along with our gelatinous neighbors.

What should you avoid doing if you see a blob washed up on shore?

  • Poking or handling it. Their stinging cells can still be active. Leave stranded blobs alone and notify officials.

Blobs of the Future

Asblobs continue their invasion in marine ecosystems around the world, what does the future hold? Here are some projections:

  • Heightened impacts – Blob range expansions and increasing frequency of blooms will likely amplify their ecological and economic impacts.
  • Shifting baselines – As blob numbers rise, people may become accustomed to their abundance as the “new normal.”
  • New winners and losers – Changing species distributions will produce regional winners (invasive blobs) and losers (native species).
  • Emerging health hazards – More numerous jellyfish could pose greater risks to tourism, fishing, and aquaculture industries.
  • Sting protection – Novel protective clothing, detection systems, and deterrents will be needed to stay blob-safe.
  • Ramped up research – Expanding blobs will propel studies of forecasting, control, and mitigation techniques.
  • Climate unknowns – The complex interplay between blobs and climate is still murky, with many uncertainties about carbon cycling.

While the future is cloudy, it seems clear that marine ecosystems are in for a more gelatinous phase. We must redouble our efforts to understand how shifting blob abundances will reshape ocean realms. With insight and care, there are still abundant wonders left for us to discover in the vibrant, gel-filled, blob-studded seas of the future.

Should we be alarmed about increasing numbers of ocean blobs?

  • Concern is warranted, but alarmism is unproductive. Increased blobs have complex ecosystem effects. Staying informed and implementing science-based policies will lead to the best outcomes.


The blob invasion offers a window into the changing state of Earth’s oceans. These quivering, gelatinous masses have always been part of marine ecosystems, but human activities and natural cycles have caused their populations to surge. The future ocean seems destined to be more blob-filled, with many uncertainties and challenges ahead. However, armed with growing knowledge of these perplexing creatures, we can work to minimize harm from proliferating blobs. Perhaps these otherworldly lifeforms also hold secrets that could inspire solutions for ocean conservation and our planet’s environmental troubles. As we probe the mysteries of the blob realm, we should remain cognizant that wonder, wisdom, and responsibility must go hand in hand. Our ocean and the fabulous creatures that call it home deserve no less.

Key Takeaways about Blobs:

  • They are increasing due to multiple factors like overfishing, pollution, climate change, and more.
  • Major groups include jellyfish, comb jellies, and salps.
  • Effects on ecosystems are complex – they compete with fish but also recycle nutrients.
  • Special methods are needed to study these delicate creatures.
  • Caution is advised in blob-rich waters, but they should not be needlessly feared.
  • Their proliferation highlights how we influence ocean systems, sometimes unpredictably.

So don your wetsuits, grab your field notebooks, and let’s continue to explore the gelatinous frontier – there’s still so much to learn about the marvellous, mystifying blobs!